Supplier Power Analysis
Porter's Five Forces of Competition
Threat of New Entrants
Buyer Bargaining Power
Threat of Substitutes
Intensity of Rivalry
Supplier Power Definition
In Porter's five forces, supplier power refers to the pressure suppliers can exert on businesses by raising prices, lowering quality, or reducing availability of their products. When analyzing supplier power, the industry analysis is being conducted from the perspective of the industry firms, in this case referred to as the buyers. According to Porter’s 5 forces industry analysis framework, supplier power, or the bargaining power of suppliers, is one of the forces that shape the competitive structure of an industry.
The idea is that the bargaining power of the supplier in an industry affects the competitive environment for the buyer and influences the buyer’s ability to achieve profitability. Strong suppliers can pressure buyers by raising prices, lowering product quality, and reducing product availability. All of these things represent costs to the buyer. A strong supplier can make an industry more competitive and decrease profit potential for the buyer. On the other hand, a weak supplier, one who is at the mercy of the buyer in terms of quality and price, makes an industry less competitive and increases profit potential for the buyer.
Supplier Power – Determining Factors
The supplier power Porter has studied includes several determining factors. If suppliers are concentrated compared to buyers – if there are few suppliers and many buyers – supplier bargaining power is high. If buyer switching costs – the cost of switching from one supplier’s product to another supplier’s product – are high, the bargaining power of suppliers is high. If suppliers can easily forward integrate – or begin to produce the buyer’s product themselves – supplier power is high. If the buyer is not price sensitive and uneducated regarding the product, supplier power is high. If the supplier’s product is highly differentiated, supplier bargaining power is high. If the buyer does not represent a large portion of the supplier’s sales, the bargaining power of suppliers is high. If substitute products are unavailable in the marketplace, supplier power is high.
And of course, if the opposite is true for any of these factors, supplier power is low. For example, low supplier concentration, low switching costs, no threat of forward integration, more buyer price sensitivity, well-educated buyers, buyers that purchase large volumes of standardized products, and the availability of substitute products. Each of the fore mentioned factors indicate that the supplier power Porter's five forces emphasize is low.